Final Verdict Today: What Fate For Military Officers Rusagara And Byabagamba? 

Col Tom Byabagamba, Brig Gen (Rtd) Frank Rusagara and Sgt (Rtd) François Kabayiza in court
Col Tom Byabagamba, Brig Gen (Rtd) Frank Rusagara and Sgt (Rtd) François Kabayiza in court

Rwanda in and out will be eagerly waiting for final verdict by Judges at the Military High Court in a high profile case that involves a former chief of the Rwanda Presidential Guard and a General.

The highly sensitive case closely followed for the past 549 days, ends today.

Col Tom Byabagamba, former commander of the President’s protection force, Brig Gen (Rtd) Frank Rusagara, former Commandant of the Rwanda Military Academy, Nyakinama, and his driver Sgt (Rtd) François Kabayiza were first produced at a Military Tribunal in Nyamirambo on September 26, 2014 for pre-trial detention proceedings.

The trio are contesting charges including; inciting insurrection, tarnishing the image of the country and illegal possession and concealment of firearms.

For more than 20 months, the back and forth court sessions have been a scene of revelation of sensitive military information, lengthy arguments, consultations from several printed and electronic material.

All proceedings have happened in the presence of the media.

The co-accused, repeatedly defied the panel of judges, accused prosecutors of lying and made all sorts of statements in court proceedings against the government.

In particular, Colonel Byabagamba is charged with inciting insurrection, tarnishing the image of the country contrary to Article 660 of the Penal Code, concealing objects which were used or meant to commit an offense, contrary to Article 327 of the Penal Code.

The military prosecution requested court to sentence the Colonel to 22 years in prison, fine of Rwf8 million and be stripped of his rank.

For Brig General (Rtd) Rusagara, who has served in various capacities, according to military prosecution, is charged with intentionally and consistently spreading enemy propaganda, there by acting as their agent.

Prosecutors explained to judges that the General tried to convince senior military officers, both active and retired, to join his ideology aimed at overthrowing the government.

In recorded evidence, the General is quoted saying that, “Rwanda is a police state, a Banana Republic, RNC [Rwanda National Congress] is growing strong, Kagame is a dictator, our guy [President Paul Kagame- the commander-in-chief] is finished , the President is a liar…government of Rwanda is unpopular.”

When Brig. Gen (Rtd) Rusagara was arrested on August 21, 2014, his driver Sgt (Rtd) Kabayiza, quickly took two of his boss’ pistols for keeping to Colonel Byabagamba.

In the process of investigation, and an attempt to recover the missing fire arms, Colonel Byabagamba was arrested, two days later.

Colonel Byabagamba and his lawyers told court he had no intention to hide the guns and that he in fact willingly reported them to the Rwanda Defense Forces (RDF) after he was contacted to give details regarding the pistols earlier on.

And for Sgt (Rtd) Kabayiza, prosecution accuses him of concealing objects which were used or meant to commit an offense contrary to Article 327 of the Penal Code.

Meanwhile, on October 23, 2013 the cabinet had approved retirement of 600 military officers. Gen. Rusagara was among them. By law, he was required to submit fire arms to RDF immediately. When  arrested one year later, he was still in possession of the two pistols.

Gen. Rusagara, however, told the court the arms were personal properties acquired as gifts from South Africa and Israel Military Industries.

He was hesitant to explain if the arms were registered and why he had not reported or gracefully handed them over to the army upon retirement.

Panel of judges
Panel of judges

Inciting rebellion against government 

Meanwhile, as prosecution seeks a court martial against the military officers for allegedly mobilising the public and military to rebel against the government, it has produced several pieces of evidence.

For example evidence unveiled against Colonel Byabagamba shows that he sent SMS to one of his military colleagues commenting on an online publication (, in a way suggesting that Rwanda is not well governed, which amounts to spreading rumors and negative propaganda against the government of Rwanda with intention to tarnish its good image.

Although Colonel Byabagamba was reportedly warned several times by superiors he failed to reform, prosecution says he kept insulting the leadership and allegedly maintained close contact with state enemies grouped under RNC.

In defense, Colonel Byabagamba explained to court that he was not recalling to have sent the alleged SMS, and in any case it was not his own words, but the words of the publication in question above.

On the part of Gen. Rusagara, he allegedly mobilised military officers to follow Radio Itahuka run by RNC as one way of adhering to RNC ideology, communicating with Gen. Kayumba Nyamwasa, now a fugitive living in South Africa and late Colonel Patrick Karegeya, once the Chief of Intelligence before he fled the country, all founding members of RNC.

Gen. Rusagara and his lawyers rejected all these accusations.

In some hearings, prosecution produced military officers, all witnesses against the accused. The defendants have called the witnesses “opportunists.”

Nevertheless, the defendants said what they had to say and today, after listening to both sides and examining the arguments, the Military High Court will read the verdict.

The accused attentively listen as their lawyer submits to court
The accused attentively listen as their lawyer submits to court

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